Archive for the ‘POTUS’ Category

Inauguration: 1857   Leave a comment

Inauguration of James Buchanan, President of the United States, at the east front of the U. S. Capitol, March 4, 1857. First photograph of an inauguration at the Capitol, which was still under construction in 1857. The stone yard in the foreground was covered with boards to provide a platform for the crowd. The life dates of the photographer, John Wood, are unknown, but he was the photographer for the Architect of the Capitol from 1856 to 1861. Mr. Wood then entered the war as a photographer of maps for McClellan.

Inauguration of James Buchanan, President of the United States, at the east front of the U. S. Capitol, March 4, 1857. First photograph of an inauguration at the Capitol, which was still under construction in 1857. The stone yard in the foreground was covered with boards to provide a platform for the crowd. The life dates of the photographer, John Wood, are unknown, but he was the photographer for the Architect of the Capitol from 1856 to 1861. Mr. Wood then entered the war as a photographer of maps for McClellan.

Posted January 26, 2014 by henrymowry in POTUS

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The Whiskey Rebellion   1 comment

Whiskey Rebellion 00

The painting depicts George Washington and his troops near Fort Cumberland, MD, before their march to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion in western Pennsylvania. Unknown artist, attributed to Frederick Kemmelmeyer. Circa 1795. Now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Thomas Jefferson was a great President. He opposed the taxation of whiskey. And he had red hair! How could I not be a fan?

It all started in 1791, when the House of Representatives, on a vote of 35 to 21, passed the Excise Whiskey Tax. This legislation was wildly unpopular with farmers and eventually precipitated the “Whisky Rebellion.” Farmers, whose grain crop was a chief ingredient in whiskey, loudly protested the tax.

The year was 1794. US citizens in Pennsylvania had decided that the new government’s decision to tax whiskey was unfair.

In July, a mob of whiskey rebels attacked and destroyed the home of a tax official. The reports are unsure, but it seems that some tax officials were tarred and feathered , and some were ridden out of town on a rail … both of which were “extra-judicial” punishments that were exacted by vigilante mobs, not the fledgling government.

There were published illustrations of this phenomenon, such as the one below. It is important to note that the tar used in such spectacles was not the hot, asphalt-based tar that one might expect. Rather, the tar was pine tar, which can be in liquid form at room temperature. But still … the spectacle sought to punish the focus of the event with humiliation. It’s also true that if you were truly riding a triangular, split rail, then you would be, uh, uncomfortable. Injured, even.

Beware the whiskey tax rebels!

Whiskey Rebellion 02

“Famous whiskey insurrection in Pennsylvania”, an illustration from America’s first century: being a popular descriptive portraiture of the one hundred great and memorable events of perpetual interest in the history of our country by R. M. Devens (Springfield, Mass, 1882). From the New York Public Library Digital Gallery; illustrator unknown.

The first US Secretary of the Treasury (1789 – 1795) was Alexander Hamilton, who understood that he needed to create a way for the new republic to pay for itself. One of his solutions was a tax on whiskey.

Pennsylvanians revolted, and an armed rebellion was in the offing. Hamilton advocated the use of military force, which Jefferson passionately opposed. President Washington decided to put the state militias on alert, and then sent in negotiators. When that didn’t help, Washington embraced Hamilton’s view, and sent a force of 13,000 troops – led by Hamilton and Virginia governor Henry Lee – to end the rebellion.

George Washington reviewed the troops at the Carlisle BarracksWhiskey Rebellion 03The final result?

The rebels saw the awesome power of the army, and folded. Ultimately, there were only 2 civilian casualties. Rebellion over.

From The

Not everyone fell in line, though. Albert Gallatin, a Pennsylvania politician who would later become one of Hamilton’s successors as Treasury secretary, called the levy a hypocritical attempt by elites to “tax the common drink of the nation,” even as they continued to enjoy their imported fine wines and brandies. Georgians launched a petition to exempt peach brandy as “necessary of life … in this warm climate.” And Thomas Jefferson, who was known to enjoy a drink, led a successful effort to repeal the tax shortly after he was sworn in as president.


Carlisle Barracks History

Alexander Hamilton: The Whiskey Rebellion

The Daily Reckoning: The Whiskey Rebellion

The Daily Reckoning: The Whiskey Rebellion, Part II: Enforcing The Wealth Tax

The Daily Reckoning: The Whiskey Rebellion, Part III: Ending The Rebellion

A Thanksgiving Truce   1 comment

A Thanksgiving Truce

“A Thanksgiving Truce” first appeared in the November 22, 1905 issue of Puck. President Theodore Roosevelt, shown here in his “Rough Rider” uniform, was an animal lover as well as an avid hunter, hence the Bear’s toast “(with deep feeling), ‘Here’s hoping that when next we meet, we see you first.'”

Roosevelt was one of our nation’s foremost conservationists. During his Presidency, he was the first to create National Forests, National Parks, National Game Preserves and much more.

From the Library of Congress.

Moving The President   1 comment

President George W Bush's motorcade, 2005. Photo Mike Hensdill/The Gaston Gazette, as shown on Wikipedia.

President George W Bush’s motorcade, 2005. Photo Mike Hensdill/The Gaston Gazette, as shown on Wikipedia.

It was the biggest show in town.

I was working for Radio & Records, officed on the 5th floor of a 5-floor building at 1930 Century Park West in Century City, LA. We happened to be across the street from a generally empty parking lot … that was right behind the Century Plaza Hotel.

Which is where the President stayed.

The year was 1987. When President Reagan came to LA, he stayed at the Century Plaza. It was getting there that was the problem.

Because my building overlooked the parking lot, the Secret Service would search our entire office. They would look under every desk. Open every door. When the show was about to start, there would be snipers and spotters on the roof of every surrounding building, all there to protect the President.

Traffic was blocked off on all of the streets surrounding the parking lot, of course, meaning even more policemen were standing around, waiting on the show.

President Reagan would fly into LAX, and then take a helicopter (well, 3 helicopters) to the parking lot that my office overlooked. The 3 helicopters flew in a random formation, and then all landed in the parking lot. Reagan’s helicopter (“Marine One”) would magically land in the front position, so President Reagan could descend the little stair case to the parking lot, wave at the press corps behind the rope (he never heard their questions because of the helicopter noise, which was a running joke during his Presidency), and walk 5 steps to get into his car.

5 steps.

His motorcade always had multiple motorcycle cops in front, police cars, the limo, multiple black Suburbans, more police cars, and more motorcycle cops. Then, the motorcade would leave the parking lot, turn right, and move one block, turn right, and park behind the hotel. The total drive was 1-1/2 blocks and would take approximately 30 seconds.

It took about 200 people to get that done.

That’s what it took to move the President about 500 yards. Every time he came to LA.


New York Times: Who Made That Motorcade?

NBC Washington: The Presidential Motorcade, Explained

Telstar: Anatomy Of A Presidential Motorcade

Wikipedia: Presidential State Car

Lincoln at Gettysburg   2 comments

Painting by Fletcher C Ransom, currently held by the Library of Congress. This depicts Lincoln delivering his 2 minute speech on November 19, 1863. He lamented that the speech had been a great failure.

History has proven otherwise.

Lincoln at Gettysburg - Ranson


The Greatest Speech

National Archives: Rare Photo of Lincoln At Gettysburg

Portraits: Abraham Lincoln


The Greatest Speech   2 comments

It was the greatest speech ever given by an American President.

It surprised everyone with its brevity: only 272 words.

I learned it in school. Didn’t you?

It was delivered 4-1/2 months after the Battle of Gettysburg, and there are 5 known manuscript copies done in Lincoln’s own hand. The wording varies somewhat between the copies; the link below will get you to each of the 5 so you can compare them with what you memorized.

It is the greatest speech by an American President, and November 19 is the 150th anniversary of Lincoln delivering the speech.

Gettysburg Address - Bliss

Here’s the text from the Hay draft, or the so-called second draft of the speech that was written either the morning of the speech, or upon Lincoln’s return to Washington. Hay was the personal secretary of Lincoln, and he was given this copy by Lincoln:

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met here on a great battle field of that war. We are now have come to dedicate a portion of it as the a final resting place of for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But in a larger sense we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our ^poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished ^work which they have, thus far, so nobly carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before ^us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to the that cause for which they here gave gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.


The 5 Original Copies

LA Times: 150 Years Later, Newspaper Prints A Gettysburg Redress

Friendship   Leave a comment

Jefferson, Thomas

Posted August 23, 2013 by henrymowry in Living Life, POTUS

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Portraits: Abraham Lincoln   2 comments

This is Lincoln’s last portrait, purportedly taken on April 10, 1865—one week before his assassination. It’s also one of the few portraits that shows Lincoln grinning.

This is Lincoln’s last portrait, purportedly taken on April 10, 1865—one week before his assassination. It’s also one of the few portraits that shows Lincoln grinning. Photo by Alexander Gardner.

Abraham Lincoln (1809 – 1865)

The 16th President of the United States, 1861 – 1865

AKA: Honest Abe, The Rail-Splitter, The Ancient One, The Great Emancipator, The Great Liberator, The Tycoon, Uncle Abe

From: Illinois

College: One of 8 US Presidents that did not attend college

Married to: Mary Todd

Children: Robert Todd, Edward Baker “Eddie,” William Wallace “Willie,” and Thomas “Tad”

Party: Republican

Previous Jobs: Farm laborer, general store owner, captain in the Illinois militia, postmaster, surveyor, Illinois state representative, lawyer, newspaper publisher, US Congressman

In His Words: “Don’t interfere with anything in the Constitution. That must be maintained, for it is the only safeguard of our liberties. And not to Democrats alone do I make this appeal, but to all who love these great and true principles.”

“Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak out and remove all doubt.”

“Well, I wish some of you would tell me the brand of whiskey that Grant drinks. I would like to send a barrel of it to my other generals.”

“In the end, it’s not the years in your life that count. It’s the life in your years.”

“Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first four sharpening the axe.”

“A house divided against itself cannot stand.”

“I am a firm believer in the people. If given the truth, they can be depended upon to meet any national crisis. The great point is to bring them the real facts.”

“The things I want to know are in books; my best friend is the man who’ll get me a book I ain’t read.”

“How many legs does a dog have if you call the tail a leg? Four. Calling a tail a leg doesn’t make it a leg.”

“You have to do your own growing no matter how tall your grandfather was.”

“If I were two faced, would I be wearing this one?”

“With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds.”

This familiar image of Abraham Lincoln, a version of which appears on the copper penny, is easily the most ubiquitous of all Lincoln images. William Willard based this portrait on a photograph taken by Anthony Berger at Mathew Brady's studio in Washington, D.C., on February 9, 1864. The sitting occurred three weeks prior to Lincoln's appointment of General Ulysses S. Grant as commander of all the Union armies. The Lincoln penny was first minted in 1909, on the one-hundredth anniversary of Lincoln's birth. National Portrait Gallery

William Willard based this portrait on a photograph taken by Anthony Berger in Washington, DC, February 9, 1864. This familiar image of Abraham Lincoln, a version of which appears on the copper penny, is easily the most ubiquitous of all Lincoln images. The Lincoln penny was first minted in 1909, on the one-hundredth anniversary of Lincoln’s birth. National Portrait Gallery

Not true: Some historians argue that Lincoln did not really want to free the slaves. Some historians argue that Lincoln’s perspective “evolved,” and he eventually decided that freeing the slaves was the right thing to do.


The issue of slavery became the central preoccupation of the US government during the mid-19th century. With Lincoln’s election, war was assured and the South seceded. Lincoln’s first priority, as he properly concluded, was for him to restore the Union. He did that.

He also worked strenuously to pass the Emancipation Proclamation. He overcame remarkable opposition from every side, and did, in fact, free the slaves. Sometimes the simple explanation is correct: Lincoln freed the slaves as quickly as he could.

True: Lincoln gave his father all of his income until he was 21. In later life, he often loaned his father money.

Lincoln received a patent in 1849 for a flotation device to move boats in shallow water. The patent was never commercialized, but he is the only President to hold a patent.

Lincoln was the first bearded President.

West Virginia and Nevada joined the Union during Lincoln’s Presidency.

Lincoln refused to change the US flag during the Civil War, believing that the secession was, in fact, illegal, and the southern states should therefore still be represented on the flag.

Abraham Lincoln used to walk alone at night to the War Department to find out news about the Civil War.

Abraham Lincoln was known to beg or borrow books to read. He is often remembered for educating himself by candlelight at an early age. In any event, he was always reading. Later, he applied his self-taught reading habits as a lawyer, legislator and President. He often read aloud because he liked to hear the words.

Lincoln was the first President to be assassinated.

Historians generally rank Lincoln as the most effective President. Washington is generally ranked # 2, and Franklin Roosevelt # 3.

The Official Portrait: Lincoln sat for various artists while in office, but the official White House Portrait was painted after his death. In 1869, Congress decided to have a competition for a painting of Lincoln, with the incoming President to select the winner. Ulysses S Grant won the election, and his choice was a portrait by William Cogswell. George Healy also entered the competition, but his painting was not the President’s choice. Robert Todd Lincoln purchased Healy’s painting, commenting, “I have never seen a portrait of my father which is to be compared with it in any way.” After his death, Robert Lincoln’s widow bequeathed the Healy portrait to the White House in 1939.

Today, Healy’s portrait hangs in the State Dining Room, and the Cogswell portrait is in storage.

Abraham Lincoln, Official White House Portrait

Portrait of Abraham Lincoln by George P.A. Healy, 1869. The original version of this portrait was a template for artist George P. A. Healy’s large painting The Peacemakers, depicting Lincoln in consultation with three of his main military advisers at the end of the Civil War. But Healy recognized that this made a fine portrait in its own right and eventually made three replicas, including this one.

Abraham Lincoln signature


Big Mo: Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln Saved The Union, But Did He Really Free The Slaves?

Millard Fillmore’s Bathtub: Abraham Lincoln, Inventor?

Posted June 13, 2013 by henrymowry in POTUS

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Portraits: George W Bush   Leave a comment

The White House selected Robert Anderson, a Connecticut portraitist and a Yale classmate of the President, to create this painting for the National Portrait Gallery.

The White House selected Robert Anderson, a Connecticut portraitist and a Yale classmate of the President, to create this painting for the National Portrait Gallery.

George Walker Bush (1946 – )

The 43rd President of the United States, 2001 – 2009

AKA: Dubya, W, Bush 43

From: Texas

College: Yale University, Harvard Business School

Married to: Laura Welch

Children: Barbara, Jenna

Party: Republican

Previous Jobs: Lieutenant in the Texas Air National Guard, Oil industry entrepreneur, Owner of the Texas Rangers – a Major League Baseball team, Governor of Texas

In His Words: “The protection of America itself will assume a high priority in a new century. Once a strategic afterthought, homeland defense has become an urgent duty. For most of our history, America felt safe behind two great oceans. But with the spread of technology, distance no longer means security.”

“America has never been united by blood or birth or soil. We are bound by ideals that move us beyond our backgrounds, lift us above our interests and teach us what it means to be citizens.”

Bush, George W, photo by Eric Draper

White House photo by Eric Draper

“My administration has a job to do and we’re going to do it. We will rid the world of the evil-doers.”

“If the Middle East remains a place where freedom does not flourish, it will remain a place of stagnation and anger and violence for export. And as we saw in the ruins of two towers, no distance on the map will protect our lives and way of life. If the greater Middle East joins the democratic revolution that has reached much of the world, the lives of millions in that region will be bettered, and a trend of conflict and fear will be ended at its source.”

“Every nation, in every region, now has a decision to make. Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.”

“Returning to the moon is an important step for our space program. Establishing an extended human presence on the moon could vastly reduce the costs of further space exploration, making possible ever more ambitious missions. Lifting heavy spacecraft and fuel out of the Earth’s gravity is expensive. Spacecraft assembled and provisioned on the moon could escape its far lower gravity using far less energy, and thus, far less cost. Also, the moon is home to abundant resources. Its soil contains raw materials that might be harvested and processed into rocket fuel or breathable air. We can use our time on the moon to develop and test new approaches and technologies and systems that will allow us to function in other, more challenging environments. The moon is a logical step toward further progress and achievement.”

“A year ago my approval rating was in the 30s, my nominee for the Supreme Court had just withdrawn, and my vice president had shot someone. Ah, those were the good ol’ days.”

“We got a leader in Iran who has announced that he wants to destroy Israel. So I’ve told people that if you’re interested in avoiding World War III, it seems like you ought to be interested in preventing them from have the knowledge necessary to make a nuclear weapon.”

“I suspected there would be a good-size crowd once the word got out about my hanging.” – a statement made at the unveiling of his Official White House Portrait

Not true: There was wide-spread reporting during the Bush administration that he was not intelligent. Mix in a little Texas accent, some verbal miscues and a healthy dose of parody from late night comedians, and that image remains common. Here’s an alternative view from Keith Hennessey, former Bush economic advisor and current Stanford business and law professor. Read it, here.

True: Bush was the first President to have an MBA.

Bush won the 2000 Presidential election by winning 29 states, including Florida. The closeness of the Florida election resulted in  an enduring controversy that ended up in the Supreme Court. They ruled that the use of different standards among Florida’s counties violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. This ruling resulted in the machine recount being certified as official, which showed Bush won Florida by 537 votes out of 6 million votes cast. Bush lost the popular vote nationwide, but won the election 271 electoral votes to Gore’s 266.

The 9/11 attacks transformed Bush into a wartime President. George H W Bush, his father and the 41st President, said that his son “faced the greatest challenge of any president since Abraham Lincoln.”

Bush formed a new cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security.

His most controversial act was the invasion of Iraq, on the belief – supported by his advisors – that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction, and posed a grave threat to the United States. Hussein was deposed, but the weapons of mass destruction were not found, which became an enduring crisis.

The war against terrorism focused on the Taliban and its leader, Osama bin Laden. The Taliban was disrupted, but Bush was blamed for not capturing bin Laden.

With America drawn into an extended war against terror, the domestic economy entered the largest recession in the post-WWII economy. This was exacerbated by the housing crisis, fueled by subprime mortgages and the meltdown of the housing industry. The combination of the war and the economic crisis has lead many historians to rank Bush as one of the worst Presidents.

Bush was one of the most popular, and unpopular, Presidents in history. He received the highest recorded Presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attack, and one of the lowest approval ratings during the financial crisis in 2008.

The Official Portrait: John Howard Sanden painted the White House Portrait of Bush, which was unveiled in 2012. There’s an excellent article on, link below, that describes the process and interviews both Sanden and Robert Anderson (who painted Bush’s portrait for the National Portrait Gallery).


George W Bush Signature

More Painting The President

Unveiling The Bush Portrait

Portraits: George Washington   1 comment

Portrait by Rembrandt Peale

Portrait by Rembrandt Peale, 1795

George Washington (1732 – 1799)

The 1st President of the United States, 1789 – 1797

AKA: The Father Of His Country, The American Fabius, The American Cincinnatus

From: Virginia

College: None; he did receive a surveyor’s certificate from The College Of William & Mary

Married to: Martha Dandridge Custis

Children: None

Party: None

Previous Jobs: County surveyor, General in the Virginia Militia, Planter, Delegate to the First and Second Continental Congress, Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, Distiller, President of the Constitutional Convention

In His Words:  “Discipline is the soul of an army. It makes small numbers formidable; procures success to the weak, and esteem to all.”

“But lest some unlucky event should happen unfavorable to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by every gentleman in the room that I this day declare with the utmost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the command I am honored with.”

“Let us therefore animate and encourage each other, and show the whole world that a Freeman, contending for liberty on his own ground, is superior to any slavish mercenary on earth.”

“Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theatre of Action; and bidding an Affectionate farewell to this August body under whose orders I have so long acted, I here offer my commission, and take my leave of all the employments of public life.”

The  Athenaeum Portrait was left unfinished by Gilbert Stuart, but it is the image used on the dollar bill.

The Athenaeum Portrait was left unfinished by Gilbert Stuart, but it is the image used on the dollar bill.

“A people… who are possessed of the spirit of commerce, who see and who will pursue their advantages may achieve almost anything.”

“By the all-powerful dispensations of Providence, I have been protected beyond all human probability and expectation; for I had four bullets through my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet escaped unhurt, altho’ death was levelling my companions on every side.”

“As the first of every thing, in our situation will serve to establish a Precedent, it is devoutly wished on my part, that these precedents may be fixed on true principles.”

To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace.”

“A free people ought not only to be armed, but disciplined; to which end a uniform and well-digested plan is requisite; and their safety and interest require that they should promote such manufactories as tend to render them independent of others for essential, particularly military, supplies.”

“It is infinitely better to have a few good men than many indifferent ones.”

“The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their Constitutions of Government. But the Constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish Government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established Government.”

“Observe good faith and justice towards all Nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all.”

Not true: From The Moral Washington:

George Washington’s reputation as a man of moral fortitude reveals more about America’s view of morality than it does about the man himself. Washington was an exceedingly bland heroic leader, embodying an eighteenth-century ideal of republican virtue that emphasized duty, sacrifice and honorable disinterest. Flamboyance and daring were emphatically not required. Washington’s virtue was admirable, but not overly interesting.

Perhaps this is why the most famous example of his fortitude of character is, in fact, just fiction. The story of Washington and the Cherry Tree, a tale which still lingers through probably every grammar school in the U.S., was invented by a parson named Mason Locke Weems in a biography of Washington published directly after his death. Saturated with tales of Washington’s selflessness and honesty, A History of the Life and Death, Virtues and Exploits, of General George Washington (1800) and The Life of George Washington, with Curious Anecdotes Laudable to Himself and Exemplary to his Countrymen(1806) supplied the American people with flattering (and often rhyming) renditions of the events that shaped their hero. Weems imagined everything from Washington’s childhood transgression and repentance to his apotheosis when “at the sight of him, even those blessed spirits seem[ed] to feel new raptures” (Weems, 60). According to historian Karal Ann Marling, Weems was struggling to “flesh out a believable and interest ing figure … to humanize Washington” who had been painted as “cold and colorless” in an earlier, poorly selling biography. While it is likely that some readers of the time questioned the authenticity of the tales, Weems’ portraits soared in popularity in the early 1800s.

More than a century later, Weems would be vigorously debunked by a new corps of biographers intent on resurrecting the real truth of Washington’s life. Some favored dismantling the myth wholesale and dismissing it from the record. Others, however, intended to portray the story as apocryphal, but commend its inspirational value anyway. As Marling quotes from a woman who remembered every verse of the story from her days as school, “If the tale isn’t true, it should be. It is too pretty to be classified with the myths” (Marling, 310).

The Washington Family by Edward Savage, painted between 1789 and 1796, shows (from left to right): George Washington Parke Custis, George Washington, Eleanor Parke Custis, Martha Washington, and an enslaved servant: probably William Lee or Christopher Sheels.

The Washington Family by Edward Savage, painted between 1789 and 1796, shows (from left to right): George Washington Parke Custis (Grandson of Martha), George Washington, Eleanor Parke Custis (Granddaughter of Martha), Martha Washington, and an enslaved servant: probably William Lee or Christopher Sheels.

True: George Washington had false teeth that were carved from whale bone, rhinoceros ivory and deer antlers. Sources disagree on whether there were wooden teeth made for him. He still had one tooth when he was elected President.

Only George Washington has received 100 percent of the electoral votes, in both his first election in 1789 and his second in 1792.

The first constitution of the USA was titled “Articles of Confederation” and was in force between 1781 and 1788. It created a single house of Congress and no executive – but for one year during this period (1781-2), John Hanson served as “President of the United States in Congress Assembled.” Hanson was followed by Elias Boudinot (1783), Thomas Mifflin (1784), Richard Henry Lee (1785), Nathan Gorman (1786), Arthur St. Clair (1787), and Cyrus Griffin (1788). George Washington was the first President under the Constitution of June 21, 1788, ratified by 1790.

His first inauguration address was 90 seconds long and consisted of 183 words. The second inaugural address was only 135 words. That was the shortest inaugural address by a president.

George Washington was a passionate reader. He especially liked English books on agriculture. He even read books while riding horseback. His reading speed was not particularly fast, but he was consistent and persistent.

Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee all joined the Union during his Presidency.

He was the only President to not live in Washington, DC … he lived at Mount Vernon, in Virginia.

Washington served 2 terms, and refused to serve a 3rd term. His willingness to walk away from power — when many wanted to make him a king — was one of his most powerful demonstrations of what a President should be.

At one time he was the largest distiller of whiskey in Virginia.

In his will, Washington freed his 300 slaves.

The Official Portrait: Gilbert Charles Stuart painted George Washington many, many times. One of his paintings is unfinished, called The Athenaeum. It is his most celebrated and famous work: this is the image of Washington used on the $1 bill. Stuart and his daughters are known to have made 100+ copies of the painting, which they sold for $100 each.

The Official White House Portrait of Washington is one of four copies of what is called the Landsdowne portrait. It was completed in 1797, and hangs today in the East Room of the White House. (Another version hangs in the National Portrait Gallery.) Congress allocated $800 in 1800 to purchase the portrait for the White House.

During the War of 1812, British troops burned Washington. This painting was saved through the intervention of First Lady Dolley Madison and Paul Jennings, a slave owned by President James Madison.

George Washington, Official White House Portrait



Big Mo

The Moral Washington

National Portrait Gallery: The Landsdowne Portrait

Millard Fillmore’s Bathtub: American’s Love George Washington’s Nose

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